מקורות ומחקרים בעולם

עשן עצים – מקורות וקישורים

הרשימה שוכפלה מאתר רופאים ומדענים נגד זיהום עשן עץ  :   DSAWSP https://woodsmokepollution.org/references.html 

עשן עצים ובריאות ילדים:

 

Abusalah A., Gavana M., Haidich A., Smyrnakis E., Papadakis N., et al. (2012). Low Birth Weight and Prenatal Exposure to Indoor Pollution from Tobacco Smoke and Wood Fuel Smoke: A Matched Case–Control Study in Gaza Strip.Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(8), 1718–1727.

Allen J.L., Conrad K., Oberdörster G., Johnston C.J., Sleezer B., Cory-Slechta D.A. (2013). Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Particles and Preference for Immediate Reward in MiceEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 121(1), 32–38.

Amegah A., Quansah R., Jaakkola J. (2014). Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence: A113920PLoS One, 9(12),

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health (2004). Ambient Air Pollution: Health Hazards to ChildrenPediatrics, 114(6), 1699–1707.

Backes C., Nelin T., Gorr M., Wold L. (2013). Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution: How Bad is It?Toxicology Letters, 216(1), 47–53.

Bailey H., de Klerk N., Fritschi L., Attia J., Daubenton J., et al. (2011). Refuelling of Vehicles, the Use of Wood Burners and the Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Childhood: Petrol Refuelling, Wood Burning and Childhood ALLPaediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 25(6), 528–539.

Balakrishna S., Saravia J., Thevenot P., Ahlert T., Lominiki S., Dellinger B., Cormier S. (2011). Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals Induce Airways Hyperresponsiveness in Neonatal Rat Lungs.Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 8:11.

Bates D.V. (1995). The Effects of Air Pollution on ChildrenEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 103(Suppl 6): 49–53.

Bell M. L., Belanger K., Ebisu K., Gent J. F., Leaderer B. P. (2012). Relationship Between Birth Weight and Exposure to Airborne Fine Particulate Potassium and Titanium During GestationEnvironmental Research, 117, 83–89.

Bulkow L., Singleton R., DeByle C., Miernyk K., Redding G., et al. (2012). Risk Factors for Hospitalization with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in Rural AlaskaPediatrics, 129(5), e1220–e1227.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Solt A., Henríquez-Roldán C., Torres-Jardón R., Nuse B., et al. (2008).
Long-term Air Pollution Exposure Is Associated with Neuroinflammation, an Altered Innate Immune Response, Disruption of the Blood-Brain Barrier, Ultrafine Particulate Deposition, and Accumulation of Amyloid β-42 and α-Synuclein in Children and Young AdultsToxicologic Pathology, 36(2), 289–310.

Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Franco-Lira M., Mora-Tiscareno A., Medina-Cortina H., Torres-Jardon R., et al. (2013). Early Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease Pathology in Urban Children: Friend Versus Foe Responses — It is Time to Face the EvidenceBioMed Research International, 2013, 161687.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Asthma in the US. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns.

Choi H., Rauh V., Garfinkel R., Tu Y., Perera F.P. (2008). Prenatal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Risk of Intrauterine Growth RestrictionEnvironmental Helath Perspectives, 116(5), 658–665.

Choi H., Wang L., Lin X., Spengler J., Perera F. (2012). Fetal Window of Vulnerability to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Proportional Intrauterine Growth RestrictionPloS One, 7(4), e35464.

Clemens T., Turner S., Dibben C. (2017). Maternal Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Fetal Growth in North-East Scotland: A Population-Based Study Using Routine Ultrasound ScansEnvironmental International, 107, 216–226.

Dadvand P., Parker J., Bell M.L., Bonzini M., Brauer M., et al.  Maternal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Term Birth Weight: a Multi-Country Evaluation of Effect and HeterogeneityEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 121(3):267–373.

Daniel A., Shah H., Kamath A., Guddettu V., Joseph B. (2012). Environmental Tobacco and Wood Smoke Increase the Risk of Legg-Calvé-Perthes DiseaseClinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 470(9), 2369–2375.

Dean B., Lopez G., Krenzelok E. (1992). Environmentally-Induced Methemoglobinemia in an InfantJournal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology, 30(1), 127–133.

DeFranco E., Moravec W., Xu F., Hall E., Hossain M., et al. (2016). Exposure to Airborne Particulate Matter During Pregnancy is Associated with Preterm Birth: a Population-Based Cohort StudyEnvironmental Health : A Global Access Science Source, 15(1), 6.

Dejmek J., Solansky I., Beneŝ I., Leníček J., Ŝrám R. (2000). The Impact of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Fine Particles on Pregnancy Outcome. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(12): 1159–1164.

Fonken L., Xu X., Weil Z., Chen G., Sun Q., et al. (2011). Air Pollution Impairs Cognition, Provokes Depressive-like Behaviors and Alters Hippocampal Cytokine Expression and MorphologyMolecular Psychiatry, 16(10), 987.

Geiser M., Allenbach S., Krapf M., Bruns E., Jeannet N., Schneider S., et. al. (2014). Responses Of Healthy And Diseased Airway Epithelia To Primary And Secondary Aerosols From Wood CombustionAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A1690–A1690

Greenop K.R., Hinwood A.L., Fritschi L., Scott R.J., Attia J., Ashton L.J., Heath J.A., Armstrong B.K., Milne, E. (2015). Vehicle Refuelling, Use of Domestic Wood Heaters and the Risk of Childhood Brain Tumours: Results from an Australian Case-Control StudyPediatric Blood Cancer, 62(2), 229–234.

Grevendonk L., Janssen B.G., Vanpoucke C., Lefebvre W., Hoxha M., Bollati V., Nawrot T.S. (2016). Mitochondrial Oxidative DNA Damage and Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution in Mother-Newborn PairsEnvironmental Health, 15, 10.

Guxens M., Lubczyńska M., Muetzel R., Dalmau-Bueno A., Jaddoe V., et al. (2018). Air Pollution Exposure During Fetal Life, Brain Morphology, and Cognitive Function in School-Age ChildrenBiological Psychiatry, e-pub ahead of print.

Honicky R., Osborne J. (1991).  Respiratory Effects of Wood Heat: Clinical Observations and Epidemiologic AssessmentEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 95, 105–109.

Janssen B.G., Saenen N.D., Roels H.A., Madhloum N., Gyselaers W., et al. (2017). Fetal Thyroid Function, Birth Weight, and in Utero Exposure to Fine Particle Air Pollution: A Birth Cohort StudyEnvironmental Health Perspectives (online), 699.

Karr C., Demers P., Koehoorn M., Lencar C., Tamburic L., et al. (2009). Influence of Ambient Air Pollutant Sources on Clinical Encounters for Infant BronchiolitisAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 180(10), 995–1001.

Koenig J., Larson T., Hanley Q., Rebolledo V., Dumler K., et al. (1993).  Pulmonary Function Changes in Children Associated with Fine Particulate Matter. Environmental Research, 63(1), 26–38.

Lai H.K., Berry S.D., Verbiest M.E.A., Tricker P.J., Atatoa Carr P.E., Morton S.M.B., Grant C.C. (2017). Emergency Department Visits of Young Children and Long-Term Exposure to Neighbourhood Smoke from Household Heating — The Growing Up in New Zealand Child Cohort StudyEnvironmental Pollution, 231(1), 533–540.

Lee G., Saravia J., You D., Shrestha B., Jaligama S., et al. (2014). Exposure to Combustion Generated Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals Enhances Severity of Influenza Virus InfectionParticle and Fibre Toxicology, 11(1), 57.

Lee P., Talbott E., Roberts J., Catov J., Bilonick R., et al. (2012). Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Blood Pressure Changes During Pregnancy.Environmental Research, 117, 46–53.

Lipsett M., Hurley S., Ostro B. (1997). Air Pollution and Emergency Room Visits for Asthma in Santa Clara County, CaliforniaEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 105(2), 216–222.

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (2009). Infant Inhalation Of Ultrafine Air Pollution Linked To Adult Lung DiseaseScienceDaily.

MacIntyre E., Karr C., Koehoorn M., Demers P., Tamburic L., et al. (2011). Residential Air Pollution and Otitis Media During the First Two Years of LifeEpidemiology, 22(1), 81.

Morris K., Morgenlander M., Coulehan J.L., Gahagen S., Arena V.C. (1990). Wood-Burning Stoves and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in American Indian Children. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 144(1), 105–108.

Munroe R.L., Gauvain M. (2011). Exposure to Open-Fire Cooking and Cognitive Performance in ChildrenInternational Journal of Environmental Health Research, 22(2), 156–164.

Naeher L., Brauer M., Lipsett M., Zelikoff J., Simpson C., et al. (2007). Woodsmoke Health Effects: A ReviewInhalation Toxicology, 19(1), 67–106.

Norris G., YoungPong S.N., Koenig J.Q., Larson T.V., Sheppard L., Stout J.W. (1999). An Association between Fine Particles and Asthma Emergency Department Visits for Children in SeattleEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 107(6), 489–493.

Ostro B., Roth L., Malig B., Marty, M. (2009). The Effects of Fine Particle Components on Respiratory Hospital Admissions in Children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(3), 475–480.

Pedersen M., Giorgis-Allemand L., Bernard C., Aguilera I., Andersen A., et al. (2013).  Ambient Air Pollution and Low Birthweight: a European Cohort Study (ESCAPE)The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 1(9), 695.

Raz R., Roberts A., Lyall K., Hart J., Just A., et al. (2015). Autism Spectrum Disorder and Particulate Matter Air Pollution Before, During, and after Pregnancy: A Nested Case–Control Analysis within the Nurses’ Health Study II CohortEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 123(3), 264–270.

Robin L.F., Less P.S., Winget M., Steinhoff M., Moulton L.H., Santosham M., Correa A. (1996). Wood-Burning Stoves and Lower Respiratory Illnesses in Navajo ChildrenThe Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 15(10), 859–865.

Rodriguez-Villamizar L., Magico A., Osornio-Vargas A., Rowe B. (2015).The Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution on the Respiratory Health of Canadian Children: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies/Les Effets de la Pollution de l’Air Atmosphérique sur la Santé Respiratoire des Enfants Canadiens : Une Analyse Systématique d’Études ÉpidémiologiquesCanadian Respiratory Journal,22(5), 282.

Salam M., Li Y., Langholz B., Gilliland, F. (2004). Early-Life Environmental Risk Factors for Asthma: Findings from the Children’s Health StudyEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 112(6), 760–765.

Sankaranarayanan L., Semmens E., Noonan C., Ward, T. (2016). Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker for Residential Wood Smoke ExposureInternational Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, 96(2), 137–147.

Sarigiannis D., Karakitsios S., Zikopoulos D., Nikolaki S., Kermenidou, M. (2015). Lung Cancer Risk from PAHs Emitted from Biomass CombustionEnvironmental Research, 137, 147–156.

Scheers H., Mwalili S.M., Faes C., Fierens F., Nemery B., Nawrot T.S. (2011). Does Air Pollution Trigger Infant Mortality in Western Europe? A Case-Crossover StudyEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 119(7), 1017–1022.

Schwartz J., Slater D., Larson T., Pierson W., Koenig J. (1993). Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Asthma in SeattleThe American Review of Respiratory Disease, 147(4), 826–831.

Siddika N., Balogun H.A., Amegah A.K., Jaakkola J.J. (2016). Prenatal Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and the Risk of stillbirth: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical EvidenceOccupational and Environmental Medicine, 73(9):573-81 [Epub 2016 May 24].

Slaughter J.C., Lumley T., Sheppard L., Koenig J.Q., Shapiro G.G. (2003). Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Symptom Severity and Medication Use in Children with Asthma. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, 91(4), 346–53.

Šrám R., Binková B., Dejmek J., Bobak M. (2005). Ambient Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review of the LiteratureEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 113(4), 375–382.

Suades-González E., Gascon M., Guxens M., Sunyer J. (2015).  Air Pollution and Neuropsychological Development: A Review of the Latest EvidenceEndocrinology, 156(10), 3473.

Wang P., You D., Saravia J., Shen H., Cormier S. (2013). Maternal Exposure to Combustion Generated PM Inhibits Pulmonary Th1 Maturation and Concomitantly Enhances Postnatal Asthma Development in OffspringParticle and Fibre Toxicology, 10(1), 29.

Woodruff T., Parker J., Schoendorf K. (2006).  Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Air Pollution and Selected Causes of Postneonatal Infant Mortality in CaliforniaEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 114(5), 786–790.

World Health Organization Europe (2005). Effects of Air Pollution on Childen’s Health and Development: A Review of the Evidence. (PDF)

Wu J., Hou H., Ritz B., Chen Y. (2010). Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Missed Abortion in Early Pregnancy in a Chinese PopulationScience of the Total Environment, 408(11), 2312–2318.

 

 

השפעות בריאותיות של עשן עצים:

 

Arrieta O., Campos-Parra A.D., Zuloaga C., Avilés A., Sánchez-Reyes R., Manríquez M.E., Covián-Molina E., Martínez-Barrera L., Meneses A., Cardona A., Borbolla-Escoboza J.R. (2012). Clinical and Pathological Characteristics, Outcome, and Mutational Profiles Regarding Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Related to Wood Smoke Exposure. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 7(8), 1228–1234.

Awji E., Chand H., Bruse S., Smith K., Colby J., et al. (2015).  Wood Smoke Enhances Cigarette Smoke-Induced Inflammation by Inducing the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor in Airway Epithelial CellsAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 52(3), 377.

Barregard L., Sällsten G., Gustafson P., Andersson L., Johansson L., Basu S., Stingendal L. (2006). Experimental Exposure to Wood-Smoke Particles in Healthy Humans: Effects on Markers of Inflammation, Coagulation, and Lipid PeroxidationInhalation Toxicology, 18(11), 845–853.

Beard J.D., Beck C., Graham R., Packham S.C., Traphagan M., Giles R.T., Morgan J.G.(2012). Winter Temperature Inversions and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma in Salt Lake County, Utah, 2003–2008Environmental Health Perspectives 120:1385–1390.

Bølling A.K., Totlandsdal A.I., Sallsten G., Braun A., Westerholm R., Bergvall C., Boman J., Dahlman H.J., Sehlstedt M., Cassee F., Sandstrom T., Schwarze P.E., Herseth J.I. (2012). Wood Smoke Particles from Different Combustion Phases Induce Similar Pro-Inflammatory Effects in a Co-culture of Monocyte and Pneumocyte Cell LinesParticle and Fibre Toxicology, 9(45).

Boman C., Forsberg B., Sandström T. (2006). Shedding New Light on Wood Smoke: a Risk Factor for Respiratory HealthEuropean Respiratory Journal, 27, 446–447.

Bui D.S., Burgess J.A., Matheson M.C., Erbas B. Perret J., Morrison S. et al. (2013). Ambient Wood Smoke, Traffic Pollution and Adult Asthma Prevalence and SeverityRespirology, 18(7), 1101–7.

Chafe Z., Brauer M., Héroux M., Klimont Z., Lanki T., Salonen R., Smith K. (2015). Residential Heating with Wood and Coal: Health Impacts and Policy Options in Europe and North America. World Health Organization regional office for Europe.

Corsini E., Budello S., Marabini L., Galbiati V., Piazzalunga A., et al. (2013). Comparison of Wood Smoke PM2.5 Obtained from the Combustion of Fir and Beech Pellets on Inflammation and DNA Damage in A549 and Thp-1 Human Cell LinesArchives of Toxicology, 87(12), 2187–2199.

Cupitt L., Glen W.,  Lewtas J. (1994). Exposure and Risk from Ambient Particle-Bound Pollution in an Airshed Dominated by Residential Wood Combustion and Mobile SourcesEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 102(Suppl 4), 75–84.

Danielsen P., Loft S., Kocbach A., Schwarze P., Møller P. (2009). Oxidative Damage to DNA and Repair Induced by Norwegian Wood Smoke Particles in Human A549 and Thp-1 Cell LinesMutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 674(1), 116–122.

Danielsen P.H., Møller P., Jensen K.A., Sharma A.K., Wallin H., Bossi R., Autrup H., Mølhave L., Ravanat J.L., Briedé J.J., de Kok T.M., Loft S. (2011). Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Inflammation Induced by Ambient Air and Wood Smoke Particulate Matter in Human A549 and THP-1 Cell LinesChemical Research in Toxicology, 24(2), 168–84.

Delgado J., Martinez L., Sánchez T., Ramirez A., Iturria C., et al. (2005). Lung Cancer Pathogenesis Associated with Wood Smoke Exposure. Chest, 128(1), 124–131.

Dellinger B., D’Alessio A., D’Anna A., Ciajolo A., Gullett B., et al. (2008). Report: Combustion Byproducts and Their Health Effects: Summary of the 10th International Congress. Environmental Engineering Science, 25(8), 1107–1114.

Díaz-Robles L., Fu J., Vergara-Fernandez A., Etcharren P., Schiappacasse L., et al. (2014). Health Risks Caused by Short Term Exposure to Ultrafine Particles Generated by Residential Wood Combustion: A Case Study of Temuco, Chile. Environment International, 66, 174–181.

Díaz-Robles L., Cortés S., Vergara-Fernández A., Ortega J.C. (2015). Short Term Health Effects of Particulate Matter: A Comparison between Wood Smoke and Multi-Source Polluted Urban Areas in ChileAerosol and Air Quality Research, 15: 306–318.

Elliott C., Copes R. (2011). Burden of Mortality Due to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution (PM2.5) in Interior and Northern BCCanadian Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 390–3.

Forchhammer L., Loft S., Roursgaard M., Cao Y., Riddervold I., et al. Expression of Adhesion Molecules, Monocyte Interactions and Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells Exposed to Wood Smoke and Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter. Toxicology Letters, 209(2), 121–128.

Gan W., FitzGerald J., Carlsten C., Sadatsafavi, M., Brauer, M. (2013). Associations of Ambient Air Pollution with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Hospitalization and MortalityAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 187(7), 721.

Ghio A., Soukup J., Case M., Dailey L., Richards J., et al. (2012). Exposure to Wood Smoke Particles Produces Inflammation in Healthy VolunteersOccupational and Environmental Medicine, 69(3), 170–175.

Gonzalez-Avila G., Delgado J., Mendoza-Posada D., Sommer B., Ramos C., et al. (2013). Differences in Plasma MMPs and TIMPs Protein Expression and Chemotherapy Response in Patients with Tobacco- or Wood-Smoke-Induced Lung CancerRespiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases, 85(4), 281.

Gunbatar H., Sertogullarindan B., Ozbay B., Avcu S., Bulut G., et al. (2012). Chronic Effects of Environmental Biomass Smoke on Lung Histopathology in Turkish Non-Smoking Women: A Case SeriesArhiv Za Higijenu Rada I Toksikologiju, 63(3), 357.

Guzmán-Grenfell A., Nieto-Velázquez N., Torres-Ramos Y., Montoya-Estrada A., Ramírez-Venegas A., et al. (2011). Increased Platelet and Erythrocyte Arginase Activity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Associated with Tobacco or Wood Smoke ExposureJournal of Investigative Medicine : The Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research, 59(3), 587.

Harvard T.C. Chan School of Public Health. (2015). Air Pollution Below EPA Standards Linked with Higher Death Rates [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu.

Hosgood H.D., Boffetta P., Greenland S., Yuan-Chin A.L., McLaughlin J., et al. (2010). In-Home Coal and Wood Use and Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of the International Lung Cancer ConsortiumEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 118(12), 1743.

Johnson P.R.S. (2011). Adverse Health Effects, Exposure Threats and Regulatory Challenges Relating to Outdoor Wood Boilers and Residential Wood CombustionJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 8–12.

Krall J.R., Mulholland J.A., Russell A.G., Balachandran S., Winquist A., et al. (2016). Associations between Source-Specific Fine Particulate Matter and Emergency Department Visits for Respiratory Disease in Four U.S. CitiesEnvironmental Health Perspectives, Advance Publication.

Krapf M., Künzi L., Allenbach S., Bruns E.A., Gavarini I., El-Haddad I., Slowik J.G., Prévôt A.S.H., Drinovec L., et al. (2017). Wood Combustion Particles Induce Adverse Effects to Normal and Diseased Airway EpitheliaEnvironmental Science: Processes & Impacts, E-pub ahead of print.

Lachocki T.M., Church D.F., Pryor W.A. (1989). Persistent Free Radicals in Woodsmoke: an ESR Spin Trapping Study. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 7(1), 17–21.

Lal K., Dutta K., Vachhrajani K., Gupta, G., Srivastava A. (1993). Histomorphological Changes in Lung of Rats Following Exposure to Wood SmokeIndian Journal of Experimental Biology, 31(9), 761.

Larson T., Koenig J. (1994). Wood Smoke: Emissions and Noncancer Respiratory Effects.  Annual Review of Public Health, 15, 133–156.

Le G.E., Breysse P.N., McDermott A., Eftim S.E., Geyh A., Berman J.D., Curriero F.C. (2014). Canadian Forest Fires and the Effects of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Hospitalizations Among the ElderlyInternational Journal of Geo-Information, 3(2), 713–731.

Leonard S., Wang S., Shi X., Jordan B., Castranova V., et al. (2000). Wood Smoke Particles Generate Free Radicals and Cause Lipid Peroxidation, DNA Damage, NFκB Activation and TNF-α Release in MacrophagesToxicology, 150(1), 147–157.

Marabini L., Ozgen S., Turacchi S., Aminti S., Arnaboldi F., Lonati G., et al. (2017). Ultrafine Particles (UFPs) from Domestic Wood Stoves: Genotoxicity in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 820, 39–46.

McGill University (2017, February 27). Woodstoves are Good For the Soul, Bad for the Heart. [Press Release].

Meunier A. (2009, July 9). Wood Burning Creates Top Cancer Risk in Oregon’s Air, EPA SaysThe Oregonian. Retrieved from http://www.oregonlive.com.

Migliaccio C.T., Kobos E., King Q.O., Porter V., Jessop F., Ward T., (2013). Adverse Effects of Wood Smoke on PM2.5 Exposure on Macrophage FunctionsInhalation Toxicology, 25(2), 67–76.

Montes de Oca M., Zabert G., Moreno D., Laucho-Contreras M., Lopez Varela M.V., Surmont F. (2017). Smoke, Biomass Exposure, and COPD Risk in the Primary Care Setting: The PUMA StudyRespiratory Care, E-pub ahead of Print.

Moreira M.A., Barbosa M.A., Jardim J.R., Queiroz M.C., Inácio L.U. (2013). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Women Exposed to Wood Stove SmokeJournal of the Brazilian Medical Association (Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira), 59(6), 607–613.

Naeher L., Brauer M., Lipsett M., Zelikoff J.T., Simpson C.D., Koenig J.Q., Smith K. (2007). Woodsmoke Health Effects: A ReviewInhalation Toxicology, 19, 67–109.

Numan M., Brown J., Michou L. (2015). Impact of Air Pollutants on Oxidative Stress in Common Autophagy-Mediated Aging Diseases. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(2), 2289.

Orozco-Levi M., Garcia-Aymerich J., Villar J., Ramírez-Sarmiento A., Antó J.M., Gea J. (2006). Wood Smoke Exposure and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseEuropean Respiratory Journal, 27, 542–546.

Pierson W.E., Koenig J.Q., Bardana E.J. Jr.(1989). Potential Adverse Health Effects of Wood SmokeWestern Journal of Medicine, 151(3), 339–342.

Pintos J., Franco E., Kowalski L., Oliveira B., Curado M. (1998). Use of Wood Stoves and Risk of Cancers of the Upper Aero-Digestive Tract: a Case-Control StudyInternational Journal of Epidemiology, 27(6), 936–940.

Rao C., Qin C., Robison Jr W., Zigler Jr J. (1995). Effect of Smoke Condensate on the Physiological Integrity and Morphology of Organ Cultured Rat LensesCurrent Eye Research, 14(4), 295.

Ramage J.E., Roggli V.L., Bell D.Y., Piantadosi C.A. (1988). Interstitial Lung Disease and Domestic Wood Burning. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 137(5), 1229-1232.

Roberts J.M., Veres P.R., Cochran A.K., Warneke C., Burling I.R., Yokelson R.J., Lerner B., Gillman J.B., Kuster W.C., Fall R., de Gouw J. (2011). Isocyanic Acid in the Atmosphere and Its Possible Link to Smoke-Related Health EffectsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(22), 8966–8971.

Robinson D.L. (2017). Composition and Oxidative Potential of PM2.5 Pollution and HealthJournal of Thoracic Disease, 9(3), 444–447.

Samuelsen M., Nygaard U.C., Løvik M. (2008). Allergy Adjuvant Effect of Particles from Wood Smoke and Road TrafficToxicology, 246(2–3), 124–131.

Sanhueza P., Torreblanca M., Diaz-Robles L., Schiappacasse L., Silva M., et al. (2009). Particulate Air Pollution and Health Effects for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Causes in Temuco, Chile: A Wood-Smoke-Polluted Urban AreaJournal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 59(12), 1481.

Sankaranarayanan L., Semmens E., Noonan C., Ward, T. (2015). Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker for Residential Wood Smoke ExposureInternational Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, 96(2), 137–147.

Sarigiannis D., Karakitsios S., Zikopoulos D., Nikolaki S., Kermenidou M. (2015). Lung Cancer Risk from PAHs Emitted from Biomass CombustionEnvironmental Research, 137, 147–156.

Schnelle-Kreis J., Küpper U., Sklorz M., Cyrys J., Briedé J.J., Peters A., Zimmermann R. (2009).Daily Measurement of Organic Compounds in Ambient Particulate Matter in Augsburg, Germany: New Aspects on Aerosol Sources and Aerosol Related Health EffectsBiomarkers, 14, Issue Sup 1.

Schreuder A.B, Larson T.V., Sheppard L., Claiborn, C.S. (2006). Ambient Woodsmoke and Associated Respiratory Emergency Department Visits in Spokane, WashingtonInternational Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 12(2), 147–153.

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McClellan R. (2002) Setting Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate MatterToxicology, 181, 329–347.

Migliore L., Coppedè F. (2009). Environmental-Induced Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Disorders and AgingMutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 674(1), 73–84.

Miller K., Siscovick D., Sheppard L., Shepherd K., Sullivan J., et al. (2007). Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Incidence of Cardiovascular Events in WomenThe New England Journal of Medicine, 356(5), 447–458.

Mitka M. (2006). Health Experts Denounce EPA’s Soot LimitsJAMA. 296(17), 2078.

Moulton P., Yang, W. (2012). Air pollution, Oxidative Stress, and Alzheimer’s DiseaseJournal of Environmental and Public Health, 2012, 472751–472759.

Nelin T., Joseph A., Gorr M., Wold L. (2012). Direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on the cardiovascular systemToxicology Letters, 208(3), 293–299.

Oberdörster G., Sharp Z., Atudorei V., Elder A., Gelein R., et al. (2004). Translocation of Inhaled Ultrafine Particles to the BrainInhalation Toxicology, 16(6–7), 437–445.

Ostro B., Wen-Ying G., Broadwin R., Green S., Lipsett M. (2007). The Effects of Components of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Mortality in California: Results from CALFINEEnvironmental Health Perspective, 115(1), 13–19.

Rosenthal F., Carney J., Olinger M. (2008). Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and airborne fine particulate matter: a case-crossover analysis of emergency medical services data in Indianapolis, IndianaEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 116(5), 631–636.

Roux J., Bard D., Le Pabic E., Segala C., Reis J., Ongagna J.C., de Sèze J., Leray E. (2017). Air Pollution by Particulate Matter PM10 May Trigger Multiple Sclerosis RelapsesEnvironmental Research, 156, 404–410.

Schneider A., Neas L., Herbst M., Case M., Williams R., Cascio W., et al. (2008). Endothelial Dysfunction: Associations with Exposure to Ambient Fine Particles in Diabetic IndividualsEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 116(12), 1666–1674.

Schneider A., Neas L., Graff D., Herbst M., Cascio W., Schmitt M., et al. (2010). Association of Cardiac and Vascular Changes with Ambient PM2.5 in Diabetic IndividualsParticle and Fibre Toxicology, 7, 14.

Schwartz J., Dockery D.W., Neas L.M. (1996). Is Daily Mortality Associated Specifically with Fine ParticlesJournal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 46(10), 927–939.

Shah A.S.V., Langrish J.P., Nair H., McAllister D.A., Hunter A.L., Donaldson K., Newby D.E., Mills N.L. (2013). Global Association of Air Pollution and Heart Failure: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Lancet, 382(9897): 1039–1048.

Shaw J. (2005). Clearing the Air: How Epidemiology, Engineering, and Experiment Finger Fine Particles as Airborne KillersHarvard Magazine, May-June 2005.

Shi L., Zanobetti A., Kloog I., Coull B., Koutrakis P., et al. (2016). Low-Concentration PM2.5 and Mortality: Estimating Acute and Chronic Effects in a Population-Based Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(1), 46–52.

Shrey K., Suchit A., Deepika D., Shruti K., Vibha R. (2011). Air Pollutants: The Key Stages in the Pathway Towards the Development of Cardiovascular DisordersEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 31(1), 1–9.

Totlandsdal A.I., Skomedal T., Låg M., Osnes J., Refsnes M. (2008). Pro-inflammatory Potential of Ultrafine Particles in Mono- and Co-Cultures of Primary Cardiac CellsToxicology, 247(1), 23–32.

Turner M., Krewski D., Pope 3rd C., Chen Y., Gapstur S., et al. (2011). Long-term Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in a Large Cohort of Never-SmokersAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 184(12), 1374–1381.

von Bornstaedt D., Kunz A., Endres M. (2014). Impact of Particulate Matter Exposition on the Risk of Ischemic Stroke: Epidemiologic Evidence and Putative MechanismsJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 34(2), 215–220.

Wellenius G., Schwartz J., Mittleman M. (2006).  Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Congestive Heart Failure in Seven United States Cities. The American Journal of Cardiology, 97(3), 404–408.

Wellenius G., Burger M., Coull B., Schwartz J., Suh H., et al. (2012).  Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Acute Ischemic StrokeArchives of Internal Medicine, 172(3), 229–234.

Weuve J., Puett R., Schwartz J., Yanosky J., Laden F., et al. (2012). Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Cognitive Decline in Older WomenArchives of Internal Medicine, 172(3), 219–227.

Wichmann H.E., Spix C., Tuch T., Wölke G., Peters A., Heinrich J., Kreyling W.G., Heyder J. (2000). Daily Mortality and Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Erfurt, Germany Part I: Role of Particle Number and Particle MassResearch report (Health Effects Institute), (98)5-86; discussion 87-94.

World Health OrganizationOutdoor Air Pollution a Leading Environmental Cause of Cancer DeathsPublished online 2013.

Xu X., Liu C., Xu Z., Tzan K., Zhong M., et al. (2011). Long-term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Pollution Induces Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Alteration in Adipose TissueToxicological Sciences, 124(1), 88–98.

Zanobetti A., Schwartz J. (2002). Cardiovascular Damage by Airborne Particles: Are Diabetics More Susceptible? Epidemiology, 13(5), 588–592.

Zanobetti A., Dominici F., Wang Y., Schwartz J.D. (2014). A National Case-Crossover Analysis of the Short-term Effect of PM2.5 on Hospitalizations and Mortality in Subjects with Diabetes and Neurological DisordersEnvironmental Health, 13(38).

 

עשן עצים הוא זיהום חלקיקי:

 

 

Airparif and Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (2012). Source Apportionmnet of Airborne Particles in the Ile-de-France Region, Final Report.

Bari A., Baumbach G., Kuch B., Scheffknecht G. (2011). Air Pollution in Residential Areas from Wood-fired HeatingAerosol and Air Quality Research, 11, 749–757.

Bari A., Baumbach G., Kuch B., Scheffknecht G. (2010). Temporal Variation and Impact of Wood Smoke Pollution on a Residential Area in Southern GermanyAtmospheric Environment, 44(31), 3823–3832.

Bari A., Bennett D., McKone T., Evans J., Nazaroff W., Margni M., Jolliet O., Smith K. (2002). Defining Intake Fraction. American Chemical Society.

Boman B.C., Forsberg A.B., Järvholm B.G. (2003). Adverse Health Effects from Ambient Air Pollution in Relation to Residential Wood Combustion in Modern SocietyScandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 29(4), 251–260.

Borrego C., Valente J., Carvalho A., Sá E., Lopes M., Miranda A.I. (2010). Contribution of Residential Wood Combustion to PM10 Levels in PortugalAtmospheric Environment, 44(5), 642–651.

Caseiro A., Bauer H., Schmidl C., Pio C.A., Puxbaum H. (2009). Wood Burning Impact on PM10 in Three Austrian RegionsAtmospheric Environment, 43(3), 13, 2186–2195.

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective (link to PDF)

Davis N. (2017, January 25). London on Pollution ‘High Alert’ Due to Cold Air, Traffic, and Wood BurningThe Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com.

Emergency Measures Unveiled to Combat Smog over Greek Cities (2013). Kathimerini English Edition. Retrieved from ekathimerini.com.

Evans G.J., Jeong C. (2007). Data Analysis and Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Golden, British Columbia using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Southern Ontario Centre for Atmospheric Aerosol Research University of Toronto.

Fairley D. (2010). Sources of Bay Area Fine Particles: 2010 Update and Trends. Publication of the Bay Area Air Quality Management District.

Favez O., Cachier H., Sciare J., Sarda-Estève R., Martinon L. (2009). Evidence for a Significant Contribution of Wood Burning Aerosols to PM2.5 During the Winter Season in Paris, France. Atmospheric Environment, 43(22–23), 3640–3644.

Fuller G.W., Tremper A.H., Baker T.D., Yttri K.E., Butterfield D. (2014). Contribution of Wood Burning to PM10 in London. Atmospheric Environment, 87, 87–94.

Genberg J., Hyder M., Stenström K., Bergström R., Simpson D., Fors E.O., Jönsson J.Å., Swietlicki E. (2011). Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosol in Southern SwedenAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 11387–11400.

Gilmore H. (2014) State’s Top Doctor Says We Should Consider Banning Wood Fire HeatersThe Sydney Morning Herald.

Glasius M., Ketzel M., Whåhlin P., Jensen B., Mønster J., Berkowicz R., Palmgren F. (2006). Impact of Wood Combustion on Particle Levels in a Residential Area in DenmarkAtmospheric Environment, 40, 7115–7124.

Hibberd M.F., Selleck P.W., Keywood M.D., Cohen D.D., Stelcer E., Atanacio A.J. (2013). Upper Hunter Particle Characterisation Study. CSIRO, Australia.

Janssen N.A.H, Hoek G., Simic-Lawson M., Fischer P., van Bree L., et al. (2011). Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborne Particles Compared with PM10 and PM2.5. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119 (12), 1691–1699.

Jeong C., Evans G.J., Dann T. , Graham M., Herod D., Dabek-Zlotorzynska E., Mathieu D., Ding L. Wang D. (2008). Influence of Biomass Burning on Wintertime Fine Particulate Matter: Source Contribution at a Valley Site in Rural British Columbia. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 3684–3699.

Kleeman M.J., Riddle S.G., Robert M.A., Jakober C.A., Fine P.M., Hays M.D., Schauer J.J., Hannigan M.P. (2009). Source Apportionment of Fine (PM1.8) and Ultrafine (PM0.1) Airborne Particulate Matter during a Severe Winter Pollution EpisodeEnvironmental Science and Technology, 43(2), 272–279.

Knapton S. (2017, January 25). Air Pollution in London Passes Levels in Beijing … and Wood Burners are Making the Problem WorseThe Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk.

Kotchenruther R.A. (2016). Source Apportionment of PM2.5 at Multiple Northwest U.S. Sites: Assessing Regional Winter Wood Smoke Impacts from Residential Wood Combustion. Atmospheric Environment, 142, 210–219.

Kreci P., Hedberg Larsson E., Ström J., Johansson C. (2008). Contribution of Residential Wood Combustion and Other Sources to Hourly Winter Aerosol in Northern Sweden Determined by Positive Matrix FactorizationAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8, 3639–3653.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Air Quality Division (2012). Investigation of the Impact of Burning Upon Ambient PM2.5 Levels in Owosso During November 2011.

Naeher L., Brauer M., Lipsett M., Zelikoff J., Simpson C., et al. (2007). Woodsmoke Health Effects: A ReviewInhalation Toxicology, 19(1), 67–106.

Plejdrup M.S., Nielsen O., Brandt J. (2016) Spatial Emission Modelling for Residential Wood Combustion in DenmarkAtmospheric Environment, 144, 389–396.

Reisen F., Meyer C.P., Keywood M.D. (2013). Impact of Biomass Burning Sources on Seasonal Aerosol Air QualityAtmospheric Environment, 67, 437–447.

Ries F., Marshall J., Brauer M. (2009) Intake Fraction of Urban Wood SmokeEnvironmental Science & Technology, 43(13), 4701–4706.

Robinson D. (2015). 2.4 Times More PM2.5 Pollution from Domestic Wood Burning than TrafficBMJ350:h2757.

Scauzillo S. (2015, January 30). Why Your Fireplace is Ruining the EnvironmentSan Gabriel Valley Tribune. Retrieved from: http://www.sgvtribune.com.

Sigsgaard T., Forsberg B., Annesi-Maesano I., Blomberg A, Bølling A, Boman C. et al. (2015). Health Impacts of Anthropogenic Biomass Burning in the Developed WorldEuropean Respiratory Journal, 46(6), 1577–88.

Szidat S., Prévôt A., Sandradewi J., Alfarra, M., Synal H., et al. (2007). Dominant Impact of Residential Wood Burning on Particulate Matter in Alpine Valleys During WinterGeophysical Research Letters, 34(5).

Thatcher T.L., Kirchstetter T.W., Malejan C.J., Ward C.E. (2014). Infiltration of Black Carbon Particles from Residential Woodsmoke into Nearby HomesOpen Journal of Air Pollution, 3, 111–120.

Thatcher T.L., Kirchstetter T.W., et al. (2011). Assessing Near-Field Exposures from Distributed Residential Wood Smoke Combustion Sources. Prepared for California Air Resources Board and California Environmental Protection Agency.

Trompetter W.J., Davy P.K., Markwitz D.A. (2010). Influence of Environmental Conditions on Carbonaceous Particle Concentrations within New ZealandJournal of Aerosol Science, 41(1), 134–142.

United States EPA (2009). Final Report: Polar Organic Compounds in Fine Particles from the New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut Regional Airshed.

Wang Q., Shao M., Zhang Y., Wei Y., Hu M., Guo S. (2009). Source Apportionment of Fine Organic Aerosols in Beijing. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 8573–8585.

Wang Y., Hopke P.K. (2014). Is Alaska Truly the Great Escape from Air Pollution? – Long Term Source Apportionment of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, AlaskaAerosol and Air Quality Research, 14, 1875–1882.

Ward T. (2013). The Fairbanks, Alaska PM2.5 Source Apportionment Research Study Winters 2005/2006-2012/2013, and Summer 2012, Final Report Amendments 6 and 7.

Ward T.,  Lange T. (2010). The Impact of Wood Smoke on Ambient PM2.5 in Northern Rocky Mountain Valley Communities. Environmental Pollution, 158(3), 723–729.

Washington State Department of Ecology Air Quality Program (2009). Health Effects and Economic Impacts of Fine Particle Pollution in Washington. Publication number: 09‐02‐021.

Yli-Tuomi T., Siponen T., Taimisto R.P., Aurela M., Teinlila K., Hillamo R., Pekkanen J., Salonen R.O., Lanki T. (2015). Impact of Wood Combustion for Secondary Heating and Recreational Purposes on Particulate Air Pollution in a Suburb in FinlandEnvironmental Science and Technology, 49 (7), 4089–4096.

Zheng M., Cass G.R., Schauer J.J., Edgerton E.S. (2002). Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in the Southeastern United States Using Solvent-Extractable Organic Compounds as TracersEnvironmental Science and Technology. 36(11), 2361–2371.

Zheng M., Cass G.R., Ke L., Wang F., Schauer J.J., Edgerton E.S., Russell A.G. (2007). Source Apportionment of Daily Fine Particulate Matter at Jefferson Street, Atlanta, GA, During Summer and WinterJournal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 57(2), 228–242

 

המחיר האמיתי של עשן עצים:

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective.

Fisher G., Kjellstrom T.,  Woodward A., Hales S., Town I., et al. (2005) Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand: Christchurch Pilot Study. Health Research Council Ministry for the Environment Ministry of Transport.

Fuchs V.R., Frank S.R. (2002). Air Pollution and Medical Care Use by Older Americans: A Cross-Area AnalysisHealth Affairs, 21(6), 207–214.

Haluza D., Kaiser A., Moshammer H., Flandorfer C., Kundi M., et al. (2012). Estimated Health Impact of a Shift from Light Fuel to Residential Wood-Burning in Upper AustriaJournal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 22(4), 339–343.

Khan L., Parton K., Doran H. (2007). Cost of Particulate Air Pollution in Armidale: A Clinical Event Survey[online]. Environmental Health, 7(2), 11–21.

Lighthall D., Nunes D., Tyner T. (2009). Environmental Health Evaluation of Rule 4901: Domestic Wood Burning, A Case Study of the Fresno/Clovis and Bakersfield Metropolitan Areas. The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District.

New South Wales EPA. Wood Smoke Amendment Q&As.

Robinson D. (2005). Air Pollution in Australia: Review of Costs, Sources and Potential SolutionsHealth Promotion Journal of Australia: Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals, 16(3).

Robinson D., Monro J., Campbell E. (2007). Spatial Variability and Population Exposure to PM2.5Pollution from Woodsmoke in a New South Wales Country Town. Atmospheric Environment, 41(26), 5464–5478.

Saffari A., Daher N., Samara C., Voutsa D., Kouras A., Manoli E., Karagkiozidou O., Vlachokostas C., Moussiopoulos N., Shafer M.M., Schauer J.J., Sioutas C. (2013). Increased Biomass Burning Due to the Economic Crisis in Greece and Its Adverse Impact on Wintertime Air Quality in ThessalonikiEnvironmental Science & Technology. 47(23), 13313-13320.

Sarigiannis D., Karakitsios S., Kermenidou M. (2015). Health Impact and Monetary Cost of Exposure to Particulate Matter Emitted from Biomass Burning in Large CitiesScience of The Total Environment, 524, 319–330.

Shah A.S.V., Langrish J.P., Nair H., McAllister D.A., Hunter A.L., Donaldson K., Newby D.E., Mills N.L. (2013). Global Association of Air Pollution and Heart Failure: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Lancet, 382(9897), 1039–1048.

Sigsgaard T., Forsberg B., Annesi-Maesano I., Blomberg A., Bølling A, Boman C. (2015). Health Impacts of Anthropogenic Biomass Burning in the Developed WorldThe European Respiratory Journal, 46(6):1577–88.

Taxing wood-burning stoves could save lives and money (March 1, 2016). CPH Post Online. Retrieved from: http://cphpost.dk.

Wellenius G., Schwartz J., Mittleman M. (2006).  Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Congestive Heart Failure in Seven United States Cities. The American Journal of Cardiology, 97(3), 404–408.

 

 

מקורות ביתיים של עשן עצים:

Calabrese M., Quarantotto M., Cantaluppi C., Fasson A., Bogoni P. (2015). Quality Characteristics and Radioactive Contamination of Wood Pellet Imported in ItalyOpen Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 183-19.

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective.

Desideri D., Rongoni A., Roselli C., Saetta D., Feduzi L. (2012). Analytical Methods for the Determination of 137Cs and 9Sr in Ash of Fuel Pellets Used in ItalyMicrochemical Journal, 103, 131–134.

Eriksson A.C., Nordin E.Z., Nyström R., Pettersson E., Swietlicki E., Bergvall C., Westerholm R., Boman C., Pagels J.H. (2014). Particulate PAH Emissions from Residential Biomass Combustion: Time-Resolved Analysis with Aerosol Mass SpectrometryEnvironmental Science and Technology, 48, 7143−7150.

Fine P., Cass G., Simoneit, B. (2004). Chemical Characterization of Fine Particle Emissions from the Wood Stove Combustion of Prevalent United States Tree SpeciesEnvironmental Engineering Science, 21(6), 705.

Fisher L., Houck J., Tiegs P., McGaughey J. (2000). Long – Term Performance of EPA-Certified Phase 2 Woodstoves, Klamath Falls and Portland, Oregon. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Happo M., Uski O., Jalava P., Kelz J., Brunner T., Hakulinen P., Mäki-Paakkanen J., Kosma V., et al. (2013). Pulmonary Inflammation and Tissue Damage in the Mouse Lung After Exposure to PM Samples from Biomass Heating Appliances of Old and Modern TechnologiesScience of The Total Envirnoment, 443: 256–266.

Houck J.E., Pitzman L.Y., Tiegs P. (2008). Emission Factors for New Certified Residential Wood Heaters. Presented at the 17th International Emission Inventory Conference, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Houck J.E. (2009). Efficiency: Pick a Number, Any NumberHearth and Home, March 2009, 148.

Houck, J.E. (2017). Straight TalkHearth and Home, May 2017, 38–45.

Knickmeyer E. (2015, January 19). Coughing Neighbors Make Bay Area Rethink Outdoor CookingThe Mercury News. Retrieved from http://www.mercurynews.com.

Leskinen J., Tissari J., Uski O.J., Jokiniemi J. (2014). Fine Particle Emissions in Three Different Combustion Conditions of a Wood Chip-Fired Appliance Particulate Physico-chemical Properties and Induced Cell DeathAtmospheric Environment, 86, 129–139.

Meyer C.P., Luhar A., Gillett R., Keywoods M. (2008). Measurement of Real-World PM10 Emission Factors and Emission Profiles from Woodheaters by In Situ Source Monitoring and Atmospheric Verification Methods. Final Report of Clean Air Research Project 16 for Australian Commonwealth Department of the Environment Water Heritage and the Arts.

Ozgen S., Caserini S., Galante S., Giugliano M., Angelino E, Marongiu A., Hugony F., Migliavacca G., Morreale C. (2014). Emission Factors from Small Scale Appliances Burning Wood and PelletsAtmospheric Environment, 94, 144–153.

Purvis C.R., McCrillis R.C., Kariher P.H. (2000) Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Organic Speciation of Fireplace EmissionsEnvironmental Science and Technology, 34(9), 1653-1658.

Rector L.R., Allen G., Hopke P.K., Chandrasekaran S.R., Lin L. (2013). Elemental Analysis of Wood Fuels. Report prepared by NESCAUM for New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

Robinson D.L. (2016). What Makes a Successful Woodsmoke-Reduction Program? Air Quality and Climate Change, 50(3), 20–28.

Salthammer T., Schripp T., Wientzek S., Wensing M. (2014). Impact of Operating Wood-Burning Fireplace Ovens on Indoor Air QualityChemosphere, 103, 205-211.

Scott A.J. (2005). Real-Life Emissions from Residential Wood Burning Appliances in New Zealand. Ministry for the Environment Sustainable Management Fund.

Skreiberg Ø., Karlsvik E., Hustad J., Sønju O. (1997). Round Robin Test of a Wood Stove: The Influence of Standards, Test Procedures and Calculation Procedures on the Emission Level. Biomass and Bioenergy, 12(6), 439–452.

Tissari J., Lyyränen J., Hytönen K., Sippula O., Tapper U., Frey A., Saamio K., Pennanen A.S., et al. (2008). Fine Particle and Gaseous Emissions from Normal and Smouldering Wood Combustion in a Conventional Masonry HeaterAtmospheric Environmnet, 42(34), 7862–7873.

Toscano G., Duca D., Amato A., Pizzi A. (2014). Emission from Realistic Utilization of Wood Pellet StoveEnergy, 68, 644–650.

Toscano G., Riva G., Foppa Pedretti E., Corinaldesi F., Mengarelli C., Duca D. (2013). Investigation on Wood Pellet Quality and Relationship between Ash Content and the Most Important Chemical ElementsBiomass and Bioenergy, 56, 317–322.

Uski O.J., Jalava P., Happo M.S., Leskinen J., Sippula O., Tissari J., Mäki-Paakkanen J., et al. (2014). Different Toxic Mechanisms are Activated by Emission PM Depending on Combustion EfficiencyAtmospheric Environment, 89, 623–632.

Venturini E., Vassura I., Zanetti C., Pizzi A., Toscano G., Passarini F. (2015). Evaluation of Non-steady State Condition Contribution to the Total Emissions of Residential Wood Pellet StoveEnergy, 88, 650–657.

Win K.M., Persson T., Bales C. (2012). Particles and Gaseous Emissions from Realistic Operation of Residential Wood Pellet Heating SystemsAtmospheric Environment, 59, 320–327.

Wu C.Y., Herschberger L., Bael D., Fenske M.J., Palmer K. (2015). Lessons Learned from the Residential Wood Combustion Surveys. (PDF) Slide Presentation to the 2015 International Emission Inventory Conference “Air Quality Challenges: Tackling the Changing Face of Emissions.” U.S. EPA.

See also references for Wood Stove Changeouts

 

 

מסעדות ומקומות ציבוריים:

Ahmed M.T., Hadi E.A., El Samahy S., Youssof K. (2000). The Influence of Baking Fuel on Residues of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in BreadJournal of Hazardous Materials. 80(1–3), 1–8.

Akpambang V., Purcaro G., Lajide L., Amoo I., Conte L., et al. (2009). Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Commonly Consumed Nigerian Smoked/Grilled Fish and MeatFood Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 26(7), 1096–1103.

Anderson K.E., Sinha R., Kulldorff M., Gross M., Lang N.P, Barber C., Harnack L, et al. (2002). Meat Intake and Cooking Techniques: Associations with Pancreatic Cancer. Mutation Research/Fundamental Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 506–507, 225–231.

Badyda A.J., Widziewicz K., Rogula-Kozłowska W., Majewski G., Jureczko I. (2017) Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal Briquettes. In: . Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, Boston, MA.

Buonanno G., Morawska L., Stabile L., Viola A. (2010). Exposure to Particle Number, Surface Area and PM Concentrations in PizzeriasAtmospheric Environment, 44(32), 3963–3969.

City of Cambridge Public Health Department (2017, June 19). Order Regarding Use of Solid Fuel (Wood and Charcoal) as a Cooking Source at Shepard Restaurant and Bar.

Chen J., Wang S., Hsieh D., Yang H., Lee H. (2012). Carcinogenic Potencies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for Back-Door Neighbors of Restaurants with Cooking EmissionsScience of the Total Environment, 417–418 : 68–75.

Conti K. (2017, 15 May). Neighbors Clash over Cambridge Restaurant’s SmokeThe Boston Globe. Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe.com.

Conti K. (2017, 19 June). Following Complaints, Cambridge Restaurant Ordered to Stop Cooking with Charcoal and WoodThe Boston Globe. Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe.com.

Daniel C.R., Schwartz K.L., Colt J.S., Dong L.M., Ruterbusch J.J., et al. (2011). Meat-cooking Mutagens and Risk of Renal Cell CarcinomaBritish Journal of Cancer, 105, 1096–1104.

Farhadian A., Jinap S., Abas F., Sakar Z. (2010). Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Grilled MeatFood Control, 21(5), 606–610.

Fritz W., Soós, K. (1980). Smoked Food and CancerBibliotheca Nutritio Et Dieta, 57–64.

Gianelle V., Colombi C., Caserini S., Ozgen S., Galante S., Marongiu A., Lanzani G. (2013). Benzo(a)pyrene Air Concentrations and Emission Inventory in Lombardy Region, ItalyAtmospheric Pollution Research, 4(3), 257–266.

Horton D. Fire Risk from Solid Fuel Commercial Cooking. Consultant’s report.

Hyland A., Barnoya J., Corral J.E. (2012). Smoke-Free Air Policies: Past, Present and FutureTobacco Control, 21, 154–161.

Jedrychowski W., Perera F., Tang D., Stigter L., Mroz E., et al. (2012). Impact of Barbecued Meat Consumed in Pregnancy on Birth Outcomes Accounting for Personal Prenatal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Birth Cohort Study in Poland. Nutrition, 28(4), 372–377.

Kabir E., Kim K., Ahn J. Hong O., Sohn J.R. (2010). Barbecue Charcoal Combustion as a Potential Source of Aromatic Volatile Organic Compounds and CarbonylsJournal of Hazardous Materials, 174(1–3), 492–499.

Kumar P., Andrade M.F., Ynoue R.Y., Fornaro A., Dias de Freitas E., Martins J., et al. (2016). New Directions: From Biofuels to Wood Stoves: The Modern and Ancient Air Quality Challenges in the Megacity of São PauloAtmospheric Environment, 140, 364–369.

Lalonde M. (2017, 20 June). Montreal Bagels and the Pollution ProblemMontreal Gazette. Retrieved from http://montrealgazette.com.

Lee H., Wang Q., Yang F., Tao P., Li H., et al. (2012). SULT1A1 Arg213His Polymorphism, Smoked Meat, and Breast Cancer Risk: a Case-Control Study and Meta-AnalysisDNA and Cell Biology, 31(5), 688–699.

McCart M. (2015, October 23). Hotel Monaco Restaurant Ordered to Pay $4,850 fine for Violating Air Pollution Enforcement OrderPittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved from http://www.pittsburgpost-gazette.com/life/food.

National Cancer Institute. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov.

Olsson M., Petersson G. (2003). Benzene emitted from glowing charcoalScience of The Total Environment. 303(3), 215–220.

Rey-Salgueiro L., García-Falcón M., Martinez-Carballo E., Simal-Gándara J. (2008). Effects of Toasting Procedures on the Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Toasted BreadFood Chemistry, 108(2), 607–615.

Sturgis C. (2011, January 30). Neighbors of Hopewell’s Nomad Pizzeria Complain of Toxins, Soot from Pizza Oven. Retrieved from: www.nj.com.

Susaya J., Kim K., Ahn J., Jung M., Kang C. (2010). BBQ Charcoal Combustion as an Important Source of Trace Metal Exposure to HumansJournal of Hazardous Materials, 176(1–3), 932–937.

White A.J., Bradshaw P.T., Herring A.H., Teitelbaum S.L., Beyea J., Stellman S.D., et al. (2016). Exposure to Multiple Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Breast Cancer IncidenceEnvironment International, 89–90, 185–192.

Wu C., Bao L., Guo Y., Li S., Zeng E.Y. (2015). Barbecue Fumes: An Overlooked Source of Health Hazards in Outdoor Settings? Environmental Science and Technology, 49(17), 10607–10615.

 

 

השפעות סביבתיות של עשן עצים

Alves C., Gonçalves C., Fernandes A.P., Tarelho L., Pio C. (2011). Fireplace and Woodstove Fine Particle Emissions from Combustion of Western Mediterranean Wood TypesAtmospheric Research, 101(3), 692–700.

Ahlers C.D. (2016). Wood Burning, Biomass, Air Pollution, and Climate Change. Environmental Law, Vol 46; Vermont Law School Research Paper No. 4–16.

Australian Air Quality Group. Most Effective Ways to Reduce Your Global Warming. Retrieved from woodsmoke.3sc.net.

Bahadur R., Praveen P.S., Xu Y., Ramanathan V. (2012). Solar Absorption by Elemental and Brown Carbon Determined from Spectrual ObservationsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(43), 17366–17371.

Beaudoin K.J. (2014). Reducing Black Carbon from Wood Burning in Fairbanks, Alaska. Alaska Law Review, 31(87–103).

Bond T.C., Doherty S.J, Fahey D.W., Forster P.M., Bernstein T., et al. (2013). Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific AssessmentJournal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 118, 5380–5552.

Bourcier L., Sellegri K., Masson O., Zangrando R., Barbante C., Gambaro A., Pichon J.M., Boulon, J., Laj P. (2010). Experimental Evidence of Biomass Burning as a Source of Atmospheric 137Cs, Puy de Dôme (1465 m a.s.l.), FranceAtmospheric Environment, 44(19), 2280–2286.

Chen Y., Bond T.C. (2010). Light Absorption by Organic Carbon from Wood CombustionAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 1773–1787.

Denier van der Gon H.A.C., Bergström R., Fountoukis C., Johansson C., Pandis S.N., et al. (2015). Particulate Emissions from Residential Wood Combustion in Europe – Revised Estimates and an Evaluation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.

European Commission (2015). Paris Agreement. Retrieved from ec.europa.eu.

Fernandes A.P., Alves C.A., Gonçalves C., Tarelho L., Pio C., Schmidl C., Bauer H. Emission Factors from Residential Combustion Appliances Burning Portuguese Biomass FuelsJournal of Environmental Monitoring, 13, 3196-3206.

Gilardoni S., Massoli P., Paglione M., Giulianelli L., Carbone C., Rinaldi M., et al. (2016). Direct Observation of Aqueous Secondary Organic Aerosol from Biomass-Burning EmissionsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(36), 10013–10018.

Herich H., Hueglin C., Buchmann B. (2011). A 2.5 Year’s Source Apportionment Study of Black Carbon from Wood Burning and Fossil Fuel Combustion at Urban and Rural Sites in SwitzerlandAtmospheric Measurement Techniques, 4, 1409–1420.

Highwood E.J., Kinnersley R.P. (2006). When Smoke Gets in Our Eyes: The Multiple Impacts of Atmospheric Black Carbon on Climate, Air Quality and HealthEnvironment International, 32(4), 560–566.

Holden A., Sullivan A., Munchak L., Kreidenweis S., Schichtel B., et al. (2011). Determining Contributions of Biomass Burning and Other Sources to Fine Particle Contemporary Carbon in the Western United StatesAtmospheric Environment, 45(11), 1986-1993.

Iinuma Y., Böge O., Gräfe R., Herrmann H. (2010). Methyl-Nitrocatechols: Atmospheric Tracer Compounds for Biomass Burning Secondary Organic AerosolsEnvironmental Science & Technology, 44(22), 8453.

IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. (PDF of full report available)

Kirchstetter T.W., Thatcher T.L. (2012). Contribution of Organic Carbon to Wood Smoke Particulate Matter Absorption of Solar RadiationAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 6067–6072.

Leturcq P. (2013). Wood Preservation (Carbon Sequestration) or Wood Burning (Fossil-Fuel Substitution), Which is Better for Mitigating Climate Change? Annals of Forest Science, 71(2), 117–124.

Maenhaut W., Vermeylen R., Claeys M., Vercauteren J., Matheeussen C., et al. (2012). Assessment of the Contribution from Wood Burning to the PM10 Aerosol in Flanders, BelgiumThe Science of the Total Environment, 437, 226-236.

Martinsson J., Eriksson A.C., Nielsen I.E., Malmborg V.B., Ahlberg E., et al. (2015). Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion AerosolEnvironmental Science and Technology, 49, 14663−14671.

Meissner K., Alexander K. (2016). Mass Extinctions and Climate Change: Why the Speed of Rising Greenhouse Gases MattersThe Conversation. Retrieved from theconversation.com.

Meissner K., Alexander K., Mohr C., Lopez-Hilfiker F., Zotter P., Prevot A., Xu L., et al. (2013). Contribution of Nitrated Phenols to Wood Burning Brown Carbon Light Absorption in Detling, United Kingdom During Winter TimeEnvironmental Science & Technology, 47(12), 6316.

Molina M., Ramanathan V., Zaelke D. (2016). Paris Deal’s Carbon Cuts Miss Critical Warming TargetThe Energy Collective, retrieved from www.theenergycollective.com.

Olivares G., Ström J., Johansson C., Gidhagen L. (2008). Estimates of Black Carbon and Size-Resolved Particle Number Emission Factors from Residential Wood Burning Based on Ambient Monitoring and Model Simulations. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 58(6), 838-848.

Rau J. Composition and Size Distribution of Residential Wood Smoke Particles. (1989). Aerosol Science and Technology, 10(1), 181–192.

Rehman I.H., Ahmed T., Praveen P.S., Kar A., Ramanathan V. (2011). Black Carbon Emissions from Biomass and Fossil Fuels in Rural IndiaAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 7289–7299.

Robinson D. (2011). Australian Wood Heaters Currently Increase Global Warming and Health CostsAtmospheric Pollution Research, 2(3), 267–274.

Samburova V., Connolly J., Gyawall M., Yatavelli R.L., Watts A.C., Chakrabarty R.K., Zielinska B., et al. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biomass-burning emissions and their contribution to light absorption and aerosol toxicityThe Science of the Total Environment, 568:391–401.

Turóczi B., Hoffer A., Tóth Á., Kováts N., Ács A., Ferincz Á., Kovács A., Gelencsér A. (2012). Comparative Assessment of Ecotoxicity of Urban AerosolAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 7365–7370.

UNEP (2011). Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya, 78pp.

US EPA (2010). Report to Congress on Black Carbon (PDF).

Venkataraman C., Habib G., Eiguren-Fernandez A., Miguel A., Friedlander S. (2005). Residential Biofuels in South Asia: Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions and Climate ImpactsScience, 307(5714), 1454–1456.

WHO. Reducing Global Health Risks Through Mitigation of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants. Retrieved from www.who.int.

Zeng N. (2008). Carbon Sequestration Via Wood BurialCarbon Balance and Management, 3(1).

See also references for Toxins.

 

 

שינויים בקמיני העצים:

Allen R., Leckie S., Brauer M. (2009). The Impact of Stove Technology Upgrades on Indoor Residential Air QualityAtmospheric Environment, 43(37), 5908–5915.

B.C. Wood Stove Exchange Program: Program Evaluation (2008 to 2014) (2015). Pinna Sustainability Inc.

Bell M. L., Belanger K., Ebisu K., Gent J. F., Leaderer B.P. (2012). Relationship Between Birth Weight and Exposure to Airborne Fine Particulate Potassium and Titanium During GestationEnvironmental Research, 117, 83–89.

Bergauff M., Ward T.J., Noonan C.W., Palmer C.P. (2009). The Effect of a Woodstove Changeout on Ambient Levels of PM2.5 and Chemical Tracers for Woodsmoke in Libby, MontanaAtmospheric Environment, 43(18), 2938–2943.

Cuff D. (2016, August 29). Fireplace Replacement Rebates Snapped Up in a DayThe Mercury News. Retrieved from http://www.mercurynews.com.

Forcey T. (2015). The Cheapest Way to Heat Your Home with Renewable Energy – Just Flick a Switch. The Conversation. Retrieved from theconversation.com.

Johnston F.H., Hanigan I.C., Henderson S.B., Morgan G.G. (2013). Evaluation of Interventions to Reduce Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke on Mortality in Launceston, Australia: Retrospective Analysis of Daily Mortality, 1994-2007BMJ, 346:e8446.

Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Air Quality Nonattainment Status. (Accessed June 5, 2016).

Newsham J. (October 6, 2014). As Electricity Costs Rise, Market for Heat Pumps Takes OffBoston Globe. Retrieved from bostonglobe.com.

Noonan C., Navidi W., Sheppard L., Palmer C., Bergauff M., et al. (2012). Residential Indoor PM2.5 in Wood Stove Homes: Follow-up of the Libby Changeout Program.  Indoor Air, 22(6), 492–500.

Robinson D., Monro J., Campbell E. (2007). Spatial Variability and Population Exposure to PM2.5Pollution from Woodsmoke in a New South Wales Country TownAtmospheric Environment, 41(26), 5464–5478.

Söderberg T., Johansson A., Gref R. (1996). Toxic Effects of Some Conifer Resin Acids and Tea Tree Oil on Human Epithelial and Fibroblast CellsToxicology, 107(2), 99–109.

Ward T., Palmer C., Noonan C. (2010). Fine Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Following a Large Woodstove Changeout Program in Libby, MontanaJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 60(6), 688.

Ward T., Palmer C., Bergauff M., Jayanty R., Noonan C. (2011). Organic/Elemental Carbon and Woodsmoke Tracer Concentrations Following a Community Wide Woodstove Changeout ProgramAtmospheric Environment, 45(31), 5554–5560.

Ward T., Palmer C.P., Hooper K., Bergauff M., Noonan C.W. (2013). The Impact of a Community-Wide Woodstove Changeout Intervention on Air Quality within Two Schools. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 4, 238–244.

See also references for Residential Sources.

 

 

ניתור אזרחי קהילתי:

 

Nair P. (2017, June 29) Don’t Like How Your Government Tracks Air Pollution? Do It Yourself. Retrieved from https://ensia.com.

PurpleAir laser particle counters and air quality monitoring network

US EPA. Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists, Researchers and Developers.

 

ארגונים ומידע כללי:

Australian Air Quality Group: Woodsmoke information.

The Biomass Monitor

Breathe Clean Air Comox Valley

Burning Issues

Connecticut Residents Against Wood Smoke Pollution

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective (link to PDF)

Environment & Human Health, Inc: Information on Wood Smoke

Families for Clean Air

Gabriola Clean Air Society (blog)

Only Clean Air (blog)

Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment (UPHE): information and a report on wood burning

Woodburnersmoke.net newsletters